In the story of our long-lasting battle against cancer, encouraging results are coming from applications where our own immune system is triggered to identify and destroy cancer cells. However, these therapies only work in subsets of patients. One of the most important unanswered questions is how the response to these therapies is mediated, and why these therapies work for certain patients only. Recent results are uncovering the importance of our gut’s microbiome in response to cancer immunotherapies. These studies reveal the importance of maintaining a healthy intestinal flora, and they also set another warning on the health risks associated with the abuse of antibiotics.